Further reading

References, further reading, and links to useful websites.

General References, Aotearoa freshwater fish

  • Best, E. 1929. Fishing methods and devices of the Maori. Dominion Museum Bulletin No. 12. 92 p.
  • Boubée, J. A. T., Dean, T. L., West, D. W., Barrier, R. F. G. 1997. Avoidance of suspended sediment by the juvenile migratory stage of six New Zealand native fish species. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 31: 61-69.
  • Dean, T. L., Richardson J. 1999. Responses of seven species of native freshwater fish and a shrimp to low levels of dissolved oxygen. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 33: 99-106.
  • Hiroa, T. R. 1920. Maori Food-supplies of Lake Rotorua, with Methods of obtaining them, and Usages and Customs appertaining thereto. Transactions NZ Institute 53.
  • Jowett, I. G., Richardson, J. 1994. Comparison of habitat use by fish in normal and flooded river conditions. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 28: 409–416.
  • McDowall, R. M. 1990. New Zealand Freshwater Fishes. A Natural History and Guide. Heinemann Reed, Wellington.
  • McDowall, R. M. 2000. The Reed Field Guide to New Zealand Freshwater Fishes. Reed Publishing (NZ) Ltd, Auckland. 224 p.
  • NIWA. 2010. Waikato River Independent Scoping Study. NIWA Client Report: HAM2010-032. (http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/treaty/waikato-river-scoping-study/i...).
  • Richardson, J. 1997. Acute ammonia toxicity for eight New Zealand indigenous freshwater species. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 31: 185-190.
  • Richardson, J., Boubée, J. A. T., West, D. W. 1994. Thermal tolerance and preference of some native New Zealand freshwater fish. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 28: 399-407.
  • Rowe, D. K., Graynoth, E. 2002. Lake Manager's Handbook: Fish in New Zealand Lakes. Wellington, Ministry for the Environment. 112 p.
  • West, D. W., Boubée, J. A. T., Barrier, R. F. G. 1997. Responses to pH of nine fishes and one shrimp native to New Zealand freshwaters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 31:461-468.

Useful Links

Smelt, pōrohe

  • Rowe, D. K., Taumoepeau, A. 2004. Decline of common smelt (Retropinna retropinna) in turbid eutrophic lakes in the North Island of New Zealand. Hydrobiologia 523: 149-158.
  • Ward, F. J., Northcote, T. G., Boubée, J. A. T. 2005. The New Zealand common smelt: biology and ecology. Journal of Fish Biology 66: 1–32.

Inanga, Banded kōkopu, Giant kōkopu, Shortjaw kōkopu, and Kōaro

  • Baker C. F., Smith, J. P. 2007. Habitat use by banded kokopu (Galaxias fasciatus) and giant kokopu (G. argenteus) co-occurring in streams draining the Hakarimata Range, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41: 25—33.
  • Baker, C. F. 2003. Effects of adult pheromones on the avoidance of suspended sediment by migratory banded kokopu juveniles. Journal of Fish Biology 62: 386-394.
  • Baker, C., Carton, G., Fine, J., Sorensen, P. 2005. Banded kokopu: sniffing out a good home. Water and Atmosphere 13: 14-15.
  • Bonnett, M. L., Sykes, J. R. E. 2002. Habitat preferences of giant kokopu, Galaxias argenteus. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 13-24.
  • Bonnett, M. L., Lambert, P.W. 2002. Diet of giant kokopu, Galaxias argenteus. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 361-369.
  • David, B. O., Closs, G. P., Crow, S. K., Hansen, E. A. 2007. Is diel activity determined by social rank in a drift- feeding stream fish dominance hierarchy? Animal Behaviour 74: 259-263
  • David, B. O., Stoffels, R. J. 2003. Spatial organisation and behavioural interaction of giant kokopu (Galaxias argenteus) in two stream pools differing in fish density. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 37: 315-322
  • Department of Conservation. 2005. New Zealand large galaxiid recovery plan, 2003–13, Shortjaw kokopu, giant kokopu, banded kokopu, and koaro. Threatened Species Recovery Plan 55.
  • Main, M. R. 1988. Factors influencing the distribution of kokopu and koaro (Pices: Galaxiidae). University of Canterbury, MSc Thesis.
  • McDowall, R. M. 1984. The New Zealand Whitebait Book. AH & AW Reed Ltd., Wellington. 210 p.
  • Rowe, D. 1991. Native fish habitat and distribution. Freshwater Catch 45: 4-6.
  • Rowe, D. K. 1993. Disappearance of kōaro, Galaxias brevipinnis, from Lake Rotopounamu, New Zealand, following the introduction of smelt, Retropinna retropinna. Environmental Biology of Fishes 36: 329-336.
  • Rowe, D. K., Hicks, M., Richardson, J. 2000. Reduced abundance of banded kokopu (Galaxias fasciatus) and other native fish in turbid rivers of the North Island of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34: 545-556.
  • Rowe, D., Graynoth, E., James, G., Taylor, M., Hawke, L. 2003. Influence of turbidity and fluctuating water levels on the abundance and depth distribution of small, benthic fish in New Zealand alpine lakes. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 12: 216-227.
  • Richardson, J., Taylor, M. 2002. A guide to restoring inanga habitat. NIWA Science and Technology Series No. 50. 29 p.
  • Richardson, J., Jowett, I. 2005. Restoring streams for freshwater fish. NIWA Science and Technology Series No. 53. 55 p.

Tuna, freshwater eels

  • Broad, T. L., Townsend, C. R., Arbuckle, C. J., Jellyman, D. J. 2001. A model to predict the presence of longfin eels in some New Zealand streams, with particular reference to riparian vegetation and elevation. Journal of Fish Biology 58: 1098-1112.
  • Chisnall, B. L., Hicks, B. J. 1993. Age and growth of longfinned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in pastoral and forested streams in the Waikato River basin, and in two hydro-electric lakes in the North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 27: 317-332.
  • Hanchet, S. M. 1990. Effect of land use on the distribution and abundance of native fish in tributaries of the Waikato River in the Hakarimata Range, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24: 159-171.
  • Hicks, B. J., McCaughan, H. C. 1997. Land use, associated eel production, and abundance of fish and crayfish in streams in Waikato, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 31: 635-650.
  • Holmqvist, N., Stenroth, P., Berglund, O., Nystrom, P., Olsson, K., Jellyman, D., McIntosh, A., Larsson, P. 2006. Low levels of persistent organic contaminants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources. Environmental Pollution 141: 532-538.
  • Redmayne, A. C., Kim, J. P., Closs, G. P., Hunter, K. A. 2000. Methyl mercury bioaccumulation in long-finned eels, Anguilla dieffenbachii, from three rivers in Otago, New Zealand. The Science of the Total Environment 262: 37-47.

Piharau, lamprey

  • Jellyman, D. J., Glova, G. J. 2002. Habitat use by juvenile lampreys (Geotria australis) in a large New Zealand river. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 503-510.
  • Jellyman, D. J., Glova, G. J., Sykes, J. R. E. 2002. Movements and habitats of adult lamprey (Geotria australis) in two New Zealand waterways. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 53-65.

Kākahi, freshwater mussels

  • James, M. 1985. Distribution, biomass and production of the freshwater mussel, Hyridella menziesi (Gray), in Lake Taupo, New Zealand. Freshwater Biology 15: 307-314.
  • James, M. 1987. Ecology of the freshwater mussel, Hyridella menziesi (Gray) in a small oligotrophic lake. Arch. Hydrobiol. 108: 337-348.
  • McDowall, R.M. 2002. Decline of the kakahi – identifying cause and effect. Water and Atmosphere 10(4): 8-9.
  • Ogilvie, S. C. 1993. The effects of the freshwater mussel Hyridella menziesi on the phytoplankton of a shallow Otago lake. Unpublished MSc Thesis. University of Otago. 127 pp.
  • Walker, K. F. 1981. Ecology of freshwater mussels in the River Murray. Australian Water Resources Council Technical Paper 63: 1-119.
  • Walker, K. F., Byrne, M., Hickey, C. W., Roper, D. S. 2001. Freshwater mussels (Hyriidae) of Australasia. In: Bauer, G.; Wächtler, K. (eds). Evolution of the freshwater mussels Unionoida, pp. 5–31. Ecological Studies 145. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg.

Toitoi, common bully

  • Glova, G. J., Sagar, P. M. 2000. Summer spatial patterns of the fish community in a large, shallow, turbid coastal lake. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34(3): 507-522.
  • Jellyman, D. J., Glova, G.J., Sagar, P.M., Sykes, J.R.E. 1997. Spatio-temporal distribution of fish in the Kakanui River estuary, South Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 31(1): 103-118.
  • Kattel, G. R., Closs, G. P. 2007. Spatial and temporal variation in the fish community of a South Island, New Zealand coastal lake. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41: 1-11.
  • Landman, M. J., Van Den Heuvel, M. R., Ling, N. 2005. Relative sensitivities of common freshwater fish and invertebrates to acute hypoxia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39(5): 1061-1067.
  • Rowe, D. K. 1999. Factors influencing the abundance of the common bully, Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall, in small, North Island, New Zealand, lakes. Fisheries Management and Ecology 6(5): 377–386.
  • Rowe, D., Graynoth, E., James, G., Taylor, M., Hawke, L. 2003. Influence of turbidity and fluctuating water levels on the abundance and depth distribution of small, benthic fish in New Zealand alpine lakes. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 12: 216-227.
  • Sagar, P. M., Eldon, G. A. 1983. Food and feeding of small fish in the Rakaia River, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 17(3): 213-226.
  • Sagar, P. M., Glova, G. J. 1994. Food partitioning by small fish in a coastal New Zealand stream. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 28(4): 429-436.

Kōura, freshwater crayfish

  •  Allibone, R., Horrox, J., Parkyn, S. 2001. Stream classification and instream objectives for Auckland’s urban streams. NIWA Client Report ARC00257.
  • Barnes, G. E. 1996. The biology and general ecology of the brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Lake Taupo. Unpubl. MSc thesis, University of Waikato.
  • Brown, L. A. 2009. Habitat determinants and predatory interactions of the endemic freshwater crayfish (Koura, Paranephrops planifrons) in the Lower North Island, New Zealand. Palmerston North, Massey University. Masters of Science in Ecology. 76 p.
  • Hicks, B. J., McCaughan, H. C. 1997. Land use, associated eel production, and abundance of fish and crayfish in streams in Waikato, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 31(5): 635-650.
  • Hammond K. S., Hollows, J. W., Townsend, C. R., Lokman, P. M. 2006. Effects of temperature and water calcium concentration on growth, survival and moulting of freshwater crayfish, Paranephrops zealandicus. Aquaculture 251(2-4): 271-279
  • Hopkins, C. L. 1967. Breeding in the freshwater crayfish Paranephrops planifrons White. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 1: 51-58.
  • Jowett, I., Parkyn, S. M., Richardson, J. 2008. Habitat characteristics of crayfish (Paranephrops planifrons) in New Zealand streams using generalised additive models (GAMs). Hydrobiologia. 
  • Landman, M. J., Van Den Heuvel, M. R., Ling, N. 2005. Relative sensitivities of common freshwater fish and invertebrates to acute hypoxia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39(5): 1061-1067.
  • Nisikawa, U., Townsend, C. R. 2000. Distribution of the New Zealand crayfish Paranephrops zealandicus in relation to stream physico-chemistry, predatory fish, and invertebrate prey. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34: 557-567.
  • Olsson, K. 2003. The influence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) on the distribution and abundance of native crayfish (Paranephrops planifrons) and galaxiids (Galaxias spp.) in New Zealand streams. Honours thesis in Environmental science, Department of Ecology, Limnology, Lund University, Sweden.
  • Parkyn, S. M., Collier, K. J., Hicks, B. J. 2002. Growth and population dynamics of crayfish Paranephrops planifrons in streams within native forest and pastoral land uses. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 847-861.
  • Parkyn, S. M., Collier, K. J. 2004. Interaction of press and pulse disturbance on crayfish populations: flood impacts in pasture and forest streams. Hydrobiolgia 527: 113-124.
  • Parkyn, S., Kusabs, I. 2007. Taonga and mahinga kai species of the Te Arawa lakes: a review of current knowledge – koura. NIWA Client Report HAM2007-022.
  • Shave, C. R., Townsend, C. R., Crowl, T. A. 1994. Anti-predator behaviours of a freshwater crayfish (Paranephrops zealandicus) to a native and an introduced predator. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 18(1): 1-10.
  • Whitmore, N., Huryn, A. D., Arbuckle, C. J., Jansma, F. 2000. Ecology and distribution of the freshwater crayfish Paranephrops zealandicus in Otago Implications for conservation. Science for Conservation 148. 42 p.
Research subject: Water Quality