Coastal hazards, driven by more extreme coastal physical processes (including coinciding factors), can cause damage, disruption and even casualties in estuaries, river mouths, open coasts and coastal/shelf waters.
While much of the global focus and discussion around climate change has been on mitigating (reducing) greenhouse gas emissions, adaptation has now become an integral part of climate change policy worldwide.
Heat is being trapped in the atmosphere by increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases, and the climate–ocean and ice systems are responding. One of the major and most certain (and so foreseeable) consequences is the rising sea level.
The 2019 storm-tide "red-alert" dates are "king-tide" days that Emergency Managers and Coastal Hazard Managers should write in their diaries and keep an eye on adverse weather (low barometric pressure, onshore winds), river levels and sea conditions (waves and swell).
Due to its position in the 'Roaring Forties', a belt of strong winds in the Southern Hemisphere which generally occur between the latitudes of 40 and 49 degrees, as well as its small size, New Zealand is a windy country.