Publicly available data and publications

NIWA makes available and regularly updates results from several greenhouse gas measurement projects.

Publicly available data

Publications and presentations since 1997

Publicly available data

NIWA makes available and regularly updates results from several greenhouse gas measurement projects in two forms.

  • Tabular data: Data that have been carefully checked are available in tabular form via our anonymous FTP site as selected trace gas and associated data sets. This generally includes data used in our scientific publications as well as some unpublished data. Users of this data should be familiar with the underlying scientific literature and begin by reading the “README.doc” file in the "tropac" directory. Use of our data should always cite its origin as described in the “readme.txt” or “readme.doc” files closest to the corresponding data files in the directory tree underneath “tropac”.
  • Graphical summaries: records above are also available as graphical summaries. Some of these summary graphs include preliminary data that is not yet released in tabular form.

Anonymous FTP site

Graphical summaries (trace gas plots)

Publications and presentations since 1997

CO2 and the carbon cycle

Vaughn, B.H.; Miller, J.; Ferretti, D.F.; White, J.W.C. (2004). Stable isotope measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. In: De Groot, P.A. (ed.). Handbook of stable isotope analytical techniques, pp. 237–304. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Ferretti, D.F.; Pendall, E.; Morgan, J.A.; Nelson, J.A.; LeCain, D.; Mosier, A.R. (2003). Partitioning evapotranspiration fluxes from a Colorado grassland using stable isotopes: seasonal variations and ecosystem implications of elevated atmospheric CO2. Plant and Soil 254:291–303.

Ferretti, D.F.; Lowe, D.C.; Martin, R.J.; Brailsford, G.W. (2000). A new gas chromatograph–isotope ratio mass spectrometry technique for high–precision, N2O–free analysis of δ13C and δ18O in atmospheric CO2 from small air samples. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 6709–6718.

Lowe, D.C. (2000). Atmospheric CO2 and the active carbon cycle. Water and Atmosphere 8(1):14–16.

Manning, M.; Brailsford, G.; Gomez, A.; Nichol, S. (2000). CO2 mixing ratio in South Pacific maritime air, 1970 – 1998. Proceedings of WMO CO2 Experts Meeting, Stockholm, August, 1999. World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva (in press).

Gomez, A.J. (1999). The CO2 remote control system at Baring Head. Proceedings of WMO Meeting of Experts on CO2 Measurement, Melbourne. Ed. R. J. Francey. WMO, Report number TD 952.

Ferretti, D.F. (1999). The development and application of a new high precision GC–IRMS technique for N2O–free isotopic analysis of atmospheric CO2. PhD Thesis. Victoria University of Wellington.

Manning, M.R.; Gomez, A.J.; Brailsford, G.W. (1999). The New Zealand CO2 measurement programme. Proceedings of WMO Meeting of Experts on CO2 Measurement, Melbourne. Ed. R. J. Francey. WMO, Report number TD 952.

Ferretti, D.F.; Lowe, D.C. (1998). A new technique for high precision N2O free isotopic analysis of δ13C and δ18O in atmospheric CO2 from small air samples: Conflo GC–IRMS and Pacific Ocean measurements. EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union 79: F112.

Lowe, D.C.; Ferretti, D.F.; Brailsford, G.W. (1998). New technology: Continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (Conflo) applied to atmospheric greenhouse gases. Proceedings of Joint International Symposium on Global Atmospheric Chemistry, Seattle, USA. p. 105.

Manning, M.R.; Gomez, A.J.; Brailsford, G.W. (1998). Changes in atmospheric CO2. In: T.S. Clarkson (compiler), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Science of Atmospheric Trace Gases, 1998. NIWA Technical Report 15.

Nichol, S.E.; Brailsford, G.W.; Lowe, D.C. (1998). Why measure trace gases at Baring Head. In: T.S. Clarkson (compiler), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Science of Atmospheric Trace Gases, 1998. NIWA Technical Report 15.

Non–CO2 greenhouse gases

Ferretti, D.F.; Miller, J. B.; White, J. W. C.; Lassey, K. R.; Lowe, D. C.; Etheridge, D. M. (2007). Stable isotopes provide revised global limits of aerobic methane emissions from plants. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 237–241, 2007.

Allan, W.; Struthers, H.; Lowe, D. C. (2007). Methane carbon isotope effects caused by atomic chlorine in the marine boundary layer: Global model results compared with southern hemisphere measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research, in press.

Schaefer, H.; Whiticar, M.J.; Brook, E.J.; Petrenko, V.V.; Ferretti, D.F.; Severinghaus, J.P. (2006). Ice Record of d13C for Atmospheric CH4 Across the Younger Dryas–Preboreal Transition. Science, Vol. 313, pp. 1109–1112, 10.1126/science.1126562.

Allan, W.; Lowe, D.C.; Gomez, A.J.; Struthers, H.; Brailsford, G.W. (2005). Interannual variation of 13C in tropospheric methane: implications for a possible chlorine sink in the marine boundary layer. Journal of Geophysical Research 110(D11306). DOi: 10.1029/2004JD005650

Ferretti, D.F.; Miller, J.B.; White, J.W.C.; Etheridge, D.M.; Lassey, K.R.; Lowe, D.C.; MacFarling Meure, C.M.; Dreier, M.F.; Trudinger, C.M.; van Ommen, T.D.; Langenfelds, R.L. (2005). Unexpected changes to the global methane budget over the last 2,000 year. Science 309(5741):1714–1717.

Manning, M.R.; Lowe, D.C.; Moss, R.C.; Bodeker, G.E.; Allan, W. (2005). Short–term variations in the oxidising power of the atmosphere. Nature 436(7053):889–1064.

Riedel, K.; Allan, W.; Weller, R.; Schrems, O. (2005). Discrepancies between formaldehyde measurements and methane oxidation model predictions in the Antarctic troposphere: an assessment of other possible formaldehyde sources. Journal of Geophysical Research 110(D15308). DOI: 10.1029/2005JD005859

Lowe, D.C.; Koshy, K.; Bromley, A.; Allan, W.; Mani, F.; Struthers, H. (2004). Seasonal cycles of mixing ratio and 13C in atmospheric methane at Suva, Fiji. Journal of Geophysical Research 109(D23308). DOI: 10.1029/2004JD005166

Platt, U.; Allan, W.; Lowe, D.C. (2004). Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration from 13C/12C ratios in atmospheric methane. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4(9/10): 2393–2399.

Lowe, D.C.; Allan, W. (2002). A simple procedure for evaluating global cosmogenic 14C production in the atmosphere using neutron monitor data. Radiocarbon 44(1):149–158..

Lowe, D.C.; Levchenko, V.A.; Moss, R.C.; Allan, W.; Brailsford, G.W.; Smith, A.M. (2002). Assessment of "storage correction" required for in situ 14CO production in air sample cylinders. Geophysical Research Letters 29(7):10.1029/2002GL014719.

Lowe, D.; Manning, M.R. (2002). The determination of 13C in atmospheric methane in the Southern Hemisphere. In:Meijer, H.A.J. (ed.). Isotope aided studies of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases: phase II, pp. 97–106. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.

Lowe, D.; White, J.; Levin, I.; Bergamaschi, P.; Wahlen, M.; Miller, J.B. (2002). Stable isotope measurement techniques for atmospheric greenhouse gases. In: Groening, M. (ed.). Stable isotope measurement techniques for atmospheric greenhouse gases, pp. 25–46. IAEA-TECDOC No. 1268.International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.

Allan, W.; Lowe, D.C.; Cainey, J.M. (2001). Active chlorine in the remote marine boundary layer: modeling anomalous measurements of 13C in methane. Geophysical Research Letters 28:3239–3242.

Allan, W.; Manning, M.R.; Lassey, K.R.; Lowe, D.C.; Gomez, A.J. (2001). Modeling the variation of delta13C in atmospheric methane : phase ellipses and the kinetic isotope effect. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15(2):467–482.

Bergamaschi, P.; Lowe, D.C.; Manning, M.R.; Moss, R.; Bromley, T.; Clarkson, T.S. (2001). Transects of atmospheric CO, CH4, and their isotopic composition across the Pacific: shipboard measurements and validation of inverse models. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D8):7993–8011.

Bergamaschi, P.; Braeunlich, M.; Marik, T.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M. (2000). Measurements of CH4 and its carbon and hydrogen isotopes at Izana, Tenerife – seasonal cycles and synoptic scale variations. Journal of Geophysical Research (in press).

Etheridge, D.M.; Steele, L.P. ; Smith, A.M.; Trudinger, C.; Langenfelds, R.L.; Lowe, D.C.; Levchenko, V.A.; Sturrock, G.A.; Francey, R.J.; Fraser, P.J.; Morgan, V.I.; Levin, I.; Barnola, J.–M. (2000). Records of atmospheric trace gases and some isotopic ratios from Law Dome firn air. Geophysical Research Abstracts 2, 2000, Proceedings of European Geophysical Society, 25th General Assembly, Nice, France. European Geophysical Society. (published on CD–Rom ISSN: 1029–7006).

Lassey, K.R.; Lowe, D.C.; Manning, M.R. (2000). The trend in atmospheric methane δ13C and implications for isotopic constraints on the global methane budget. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14: 41–49.

Lowe, D.C.; Manning, M.R. (2000). The determination of δ13C in atmospheric methane in the southern hemisphere. Proceedings of Second Research Coordination Meeting on Isotope–aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases, Centre for Isotope Research, Groningen, Netherlands. IAEA, Vienna. (in press).

Mak, J.E.; Manning, M.R.; Lowe, D.C. (2000). Aircraft observations of δ13C of atmospheric methane over the Pacific in August 1991 and 1993: Evidence of an enrichment in 13CH4 in the Southern Hemisphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 1329–1335.

Smith, A.M.; Levchenko, V.A.; Etheridge, D.M.; Lowe, D.C.; Hua, Q.; Trudinger, C.M.; Zoppi, U.; Eicheikh, A. (2000). In search of in situ radiocarbon in Law Dome ice and firn. Nuclear Instruments and Methods (in press).

Allan, W.; Manning, M.R.; Gomez, A.J.; Lowe, D.C. (1999). Modelling the variation of δ13C in atmospheric methane: Phase ellipses and the kinetic isotope effect. Proceedings of IUGG 1999 Symposium MI02 "Atmospheric chemistry – climate interaction, Pt.II: Trace gases, aerosols and climate", Birmingham, UK.

Francey, R.J.; Manning, M.R.; Allison, C.E.; Coram, S.A.; Etheridge, D.M.; Langenfelds, R.L.; Lowe, D.C.; Steele, L.P. (1999). A history of δ13C in atmospheric CH4 from the Cape Grim air archive and Antarctic firn air. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 23,631–23,643.

Lassey, K.R.; Lowe, D.C.; Manning, M.R.; Allan, W. (1999). The atmospheric history of δ13(CH4) and of methane mixing ratio, and their importance in interpreting the global methane budget (abs). Proceedings of Sixth Scientific Conference of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC), Bologna, Italy. p. 8.

Lowe, D.C.; Allan, W.; Manning, M.R.; Bromley, T.; Brailsford, G.; Ferretti, D.; Gomez, A.; Knobben, R.; Martin, R.; Mei, Z.; Moss, R.; Koshy, K.; Maata, M. (1999). Shipboard determinations of the distribution of δ13 in atmospheric methane in the Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 26,125–26,135.

Tyler, S.C.; Ajie, H.O.; Rice, A., L.; McMillan, A.S.; Cicerone, R.J.; Lowe, D.C. (1999). Measurements of CH4 mixing ratio and δ13 in air along a transect over the Pacific Ocean between Auckland, New Zealand and Los Angeles, California (abs). EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union 80: F99–F100.

Lowe, D.C.; Manning, M.R.; Brailsford, G.W.; Bromley, A.M.; Ferretti, D. (1998). Latitudinal gradients of 13C in atmospheric methane in the Pacific: Implications for inter–hemisphere transport. Proceedings of International Symposium on Isotope Techniques in the Study of Past and Current Environmental Changes in the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere, Vienna, Austria. pp. 49–56. International Atomic Energy Agency.

Lowe, D.C.; Manning, M.R. (1998). Taking the atmosphere's pulse – stable isotopes in greenhouse gases. Proceedings of Joint International Symposium on Global Atmospheric Chemistry, Seattle, USA. p. 105.

Manning, M.R.; Allan, W.; Gomez, A.J.; Lowe, D.C. (1998). How well do we know the distribution and variability of methane sources to the atmosphere (abs). Proceedings of Joint International Symposium on Global Atmospheric Chemistry, Seattle, USA. p. 33.

Manning, M.R.; Lassey, K.R.; Lowe, D.C. (1998). Temporal variations in trace gas isotope ratios are more complex than variations in mixing ratio (abs). Proceedings of Joint International Symposium on Global Atmospheric Chemistry, Seattle. p. 106.

Martin, R.J. (1998). Nitrous oxide measurements in clean air. In: T.S. Clarkson (editor), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Science of Atmospheric Trace Gases, 1998. NIWA Technical Report 15.

Lowe, D.C.; Manning, M.R.; Brailsford, G.W.; Bromley, A.M. (1997). The 1991–1992 atmospheric methane anomaly: Southern Hemisphere 13C decrease and growth rate fluctuations. Geophysical Research Letters 24: 857–860.

Lowe, D. (1997). Melbourne Star provides floating platform for atmospheric research. Gangway 73:8–9.

Lowe, D.C.; Lassey, K.R.; Manning, M.R. (1997). A South Pacific view of atmospheric methane (abs). EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union 78: F78.

Manning, M.; Dlugokencky, E.; Francey, R.; Fung, I.; Lowe, D.; Steele, P. (1997). The source–sink budget of methane in recent times (ext abs). Proceedings of International Symposium on Atmospheric Chemistry and Future Global Environment, Nagoya, Japan. pp. 14–16.

Atmospheric chemistry

Bergamaschi, P.; Hein, R.; Heimann, M.; Crutzen, P.J. (2000). Inverse modeling of the global CO cycle: 1. Inversion of CO mixing ratios. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 1909–1928.

Bergamaschi, P.; Lowe, D.C.; Manning, M.R.; Moss, R.; Bromley, T.; Clarkson, T.S. (2000). Transects of atmospheric CO, CH4, and their isotopic composition across the Pacific – shipboard measurements and validation of inverse models. Journal of Geophysical Research (submitted April 2000).

Lowe, D.C.; Allan, W. (2000). An active chlorine sink for methane in the marine boundary layer: Evidence from stable isotope data. Geophysical Research Abstracts 2, 2000, Proceedings of European Geophysical Society, 25th General Assembly, Nice, France. European Geophysical Society. (published on CD–Rom ISSN: 1029–7006).

Lowe, D.C. (1999). Our atmosphere: A chemical thin film? Proceedings of New Zealand Institute of Chemistry Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.

Manning, M.R. (1999). Characteristic modes of isotopic variations in atmospheric chemistry. Geophysical Research Letters 26: 1263–1266.

Tyler, S.C.; Klouda, G.A.; Brailsford, G.W.; Manning, A.C.; Conny, J.M.; Jull, A.J.T. (1999). Seasonal snaphsots of the isotopic (14C, 13C) composition of tropospheric carbon monoxide at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. Chemosphere: Global Change Science 1: 185–203.

Bromley, A.M. (1998). Trace gas distribution through the SPCZ and the ITCZ. Proceedings of Joint Meteorological Society of New Zealand and New Zealand Hydrological Society Conference, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. University of Otago.

Clarkson, T.S.; R.J. Martin and J. Rudolph (1998). Southern hemisphere budgets of ethane and propane. In: T.S. Clarkson (compiler), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Science of Atmospheric Trace Gases, 1998. NIWA Technical Report 15: 99–102.

Lowe, D.C.; R.J. Martin and T.S. Clarkson (1998). Global sources and sinks of trace organic compounds by δ13C determination. In: T.S. Clarkson (compiler), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Science of Atmospheric Trace Gases, 1998. NIWA Technical Report 15: 103–104.

Godfrey, J.J.; Clarkson, T.S. (1998). Dispersion modelling in a stable polar environment – Ross Island, Antarctica. Atmospheric Environment 32: 2899–2911.

Moss, R.C.; Manning, M.R.; Lowe, D.C.; Ferretti, D.F. (1998). Changes in atmospheric carbon monoxide in the Pacific region. In: T.S. Clarkson (editor), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Science of Atmospheric Trace Gases, 1998. NIWA Technical Report 15.

Clarkson, T.; Godfrey, J. (1997). Air quality modelling for Scott Base, Antarctica. Water & Atmosphere 5(3):6–7.

Clarkson, T.S.; Martin, R.J.; Rudolph, J. (1997). Ethane and propane in the southern marine troposphere. Atmospheric Environment 31: 3763–3771.

Manning, M.R.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Allan, W. (1997). Atmospheric carbon monoxide budget of the southern hemisphere: Implications of 13C/12C measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 10,673–10,682.

Rudolph, J.; Lowe, D.C.; Martin, R.J.; Clarkson, T.S. (1997). A novel method for the compound specific determination of δ13C in volatile organic compounds at ppt levels in ambient air. Geophysical Research Letters 24: 659–662.

New Zealand gas emissions

Lassey, K.R.; Scheehle, E.A.; Kruger, D. (2005). Towards reconciling national emission inventories for methane with the global budget. Environmental Sciences 2(2–3):193–204.

Saggar, S.; Harvey, M.; Giltrap, D.L.; Metherell, A.K.; Andrew, R.M. (2005). Simultaneous examination of nitrous oxide emissions in grazed pastures using paddock-scale measurements and process-based models. Environmental Sciences 2(2–3):117–131.

Ulyatt, M.J.; Lassey, K.R.; Shelton, I.D.; Walker, C.F. (2005). Methane emission from sheep grazing four pastures in late summer in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 48(4):390.

Pinares-Patiño, C.S.; Ulyatt , M.J.; Lassey , K.R.; Barry, T.N.; Holmes, C.W. (2003). Persistence of differences between sheep in methane emission under generous grazing conditions. Journal of Agricultural Science 140:227–233.

Pinares-Patiño, C.S.; Ulyatt , M.J.; Lassey , K.R.; Barry, T.N.; Holmes, C.W. (2003)). Rumen function and digestion parameters associated with differences between sheep in methane emissions when fed chaffed lucerne hay. Journal of Agricultural Science 140::205–214.

Pinares-Patiño, C.S.; Ulyatt , M.J.; Waghorn, G.C.; Lassey , K.R.; Barry, T.N.; Holmes, C.W.; Johnson, D.E. (2003). Methane emission by alpaca and sheep fed on lucerne hay or grazed on pastures of perennial ryegrass/white clover or birdsfoot trefoil. Journal of Agricultural Science 140:215–226.

Gimson, N.R.; Lassey, K.R.; Brailsford, G.W.; Bromley, A.M.; Uliasz, M. (2002). The determination of agricultural methane emission fluxes based on air sampling and advanced modelling techniques. In: Van Ham, J.; Baede, A.P.M.; Guicherit, R.; Williams-Jacobse, J.G.F.M. (eds). Non-CO2 greenhouse gases: scientific understanding, control options and policy aspects, pp. 559–564. Millpress, Rotterdam, (Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG–3): Scientific Understanding, Control Options and Policy Aspects, Maastricht, January 2002).

Harvey, M.J.; Brailsford, G.W.; Bromley, A.M.; Lassey, K.R.; Mei, Z.; Kristament, I.S.; Reisinger, A.R.; Walker, C.F.; Kelliher, F.M. (2002). Boundary-layer isotope dilution/mass balance methods for measurement of nocturnal methane emissions from grazing sheep. Atmospheric Environment 36:4663–4678.

Kelliher, F.M.; Reisinger, A.R.; Martin, R.J.; Harvey, M.J.; Price, S.J.; Sherlock, R.R. (2002). Measuring nitrous oxide emission rate from grazed pasture using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in the nocturnal boundary layer. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 111:29–38.

Lassey, K.R.; Pinares-Patiño, C.S.; Ulyatt, M.J. (2002). Methane emission by grazing livestock: some findings on emission determinants. In: Van Ham, J.; Baede, A.P.M.; Guicherit, R.; Williams-Jacobse, J.G.F.M. (eds). Non-CO2 greenhouse gases: scientific understanding, control options and policy aspects, pp. 95–100. Millpress, Rotterdam, (Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG–3): Scientific Understanding, Control Options and Policy Aspects, Maastricht, January 2002).

Ulyatt, M.J.; Lassey, K.R.; Shelton, I.D.; Walker, C.F. (2002). Seasonal variation in methane emission from dairy cows and breeding ewes grazing ryegrass/white clover pasture in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 45:217–226.

Ulyatt, M.J.; Lassey, K.R.; Shelton, I.D.; Walker, C.F. (2002). Methane emission from dairy cows and wether sheep fed sub-tropical grass-dominant pastures in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 4:227–234.

Lassey, K.R.; Walker, C.F.; McMillan, A.M.S.; Ulyatt, M.J. (2001). On the performance of SF6 permeation tubes used in determining methane emission from grazing livestock. Chemosphere – Global Change Science 3(4:367–376.

Woodward, S.L.; Waghorn, G.C.; Ulyatt, M.J.; Lassey, K.R. (2001). Early indications that feeding lotus will reduce methane emissions from ruminants. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 61:23–26.

Wratt, D.S.; Gimson, N.R.; Brailsford, G.W.; Lassey, K.R.; Bromley, A.M.; Bell, M.J. (2001). Estimating regional greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture using aircraft measurements of concentration profiles. Atmospheric Environment 35:497–508.

Lassey, K.R.; Ulyatt. M.J. (2000). Methane emissions by grazing livestock: A synopsis of 1000 direct measurements. In: J. van Ham et al.(eds), Non–CO2 Greenhouse Gases: Scientific Understanding, Control and Implementation, 2000, pp101–106. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Lassey, K.R.; Gimson, N.R.; Wratt, D.S.; Brailsford, G.W.; Bromley, A.M. (2000). Regional concentration patterns of agricultural methane: Verifying agricultural emissions of methane measurements. In: J. van Ham et al.(eds), Non–CO2 Greenhouse Gases: Scientific Understanding, Control and Implementation, 2000, pp107–114. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Ulyatt, M.J.; Lassey, K.R. (2000). Methane emissions from pastoral systems: the situation in New Zealand. Invited paper to the XVI Reunion Latinoamericana de Produccion Animal, Montevideo, Uruguay, 29–31 March 2000.

Wratt, D.S.; Gimson, N.R.; Brailsford, G.W.; Lassey, K.R.; Bromley, A.M.; Bell, M.J. (2000). Estimating regional methane emissions from agriculture using aircraft measurements of concentration profiles. Atmospheric Environment (in press).

Judd, M.J.; Kelliher, F.M.; Ulyatt, M.J.; Lassey, K.R.; Tate, K.R.; Shelton, I.D.; Harvey, M.J.; Walker, C.F. (1999). Net methane emissions from grazing sheep. Global Change Biology 5: 647–657.

Ulyatt, M.J.; Baker, S.K.; McCrabb, G.J.; Lassey, K.R. (1999). Accuracy of SF6 tracer technology and alternatives for field measurements. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50: 1329–1334.

Harvey, M.; Lassey, K. (1999). Greenhouse gases emitted from pastoral agriculture. Water and Atmosphere 7(2):5.

Gimson, N.; Brailsford, G.; Copeland, J.; Bromley, T.; Bell, M. (1998). Estimating regional trace gas emissions using aircraft measurements and modelling techniques. In: T.S. Clarkson (compiler), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Science of Atmospheric Trace Gases, 1998. NIWA Technical Report 15: 30–32.

Harvey, M.; Bromley, T.; Walker, C.; Mei, Z.; Brailsford, G.; Lowe, D. (1998). Estimating methane emissions from paddocks of sheep. In: T.S. Clarkson (editor), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Science of Atmospheric Trace Gases, 1998. NIWA Technical Report 15: 33–36.

Lassey, K.R.; Brailsford, G.W.; Gimson, N.R.; Wratt, D.S. (1998). Emissions of greenhouse gases. In: T.S. Clarkson (compiler), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Science of Atmospheric Trace Gases, 1998. NIWA Technical Report 15: 28–29.

Lassey, K.R.; Ulyatt, M.J. (1998). Methane measured "at the mouth" of grazing livestock. In: T.S. Clarkson (compiler), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Science of Atmospheric Trace Gases, 1998. NIWA Technical Report 15: 37–39.

Pinares–Patiño, C.; Ulyatt, M.J.; Lassey, K.R.; Holmes, C.W. (1998). Persistence of inter–sheep variation in methane production. Presented at 8th World Conference on Animal Production, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, 28 June–4 July 1998. In: contributed papers, Vol. 1, pp 14–15.

Lassey, K.; Ulyatt, M. (1997). Breathalising Sheep: Do all sheep breath equally. New Zealand Science Monthly 8(1):10.

Lassey, K.; Ulyatt, M. (1997). Grazing sheep and methane emissions: Possible origins of inter–animal variability (abs). In: D. Jasper and T. Beer (eds.), Proceedings of 1997 Joint Assemblies of the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences and International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans, Melbourne. pp. IM22–7.

Lassey, K.R.; Ulyatt, M.J.; Martin, R.J.; Walker, C.F.; Shelton, I.D. (1997). Methane emissions measured directly from grazing livestock in New Zealand. Atmospheric Environment 31: 2905–2914.

Ulyatt, M.J.; Lassey, K.R.; Martin, R.J.; Walker, C.F.; Shelton, I.D. (1997). Methane emission from grazing sheep and cattle. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 57: 130–133.

Wratt, D.S.; Bell, M.J.; Brailsford, G.W.; Bromley, A.M.; Lassey, K.R. (1997). Estimating regional methane emissions using aircraft measurements of vertical concentration profiles. NIWA Science and Technology Series No 37. NIWA, Wellington, New Zealand.

Climate change

Ulyatt, M.J.; Clark, H.; Lassey, K.R. (2002). Methane and climate change. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association 64: 153–157.

Manning, M.R. (1999). Climate Change Science. Proceedings of Climate Change – Implementing the Kyoto Protocol, Wellington, New Zealand. The New Zealand Institute of International Affairs, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington.

Manning, M. (1999). Climate Change. Pacific World. :21–23.

Manning, M.R. (1997). Policy implications of uncertainties and definitions in national greenhouse gas emission inventories. Proceedings of Countdown to Kyoto: The consequences of mandatory emission reductions, Canberra. APEC Study Centre, Monash University, Melbourne.

Manning, M. (1997). Global warming accepted. Dominion 7 August 1997: 8.

Manning, M.R.; Lassey, K.R. (1997). Uncertainties in Assessing the National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory and their relevance to Emissions Limitation Policies. WLG1997/34. NIWA, Wellington.